2-D Array and 2-D strings in C

2D Array and 2D strings

A 1-D array is a collection of several elements that contain only one row of elements.
The 2-D array is a collection of rows and columns where each row contains smiler number of columns.
The requirement of 2-D array is removing the need of several 1-d array and it may be helpful to create
mathematical data structure named as matrix.

Initializing 2-D Array

1.Screenshot from 2018-08-16 11-35-29
2.Screenshot from 2018-08-16 17-54-17

Taking input in a 2-D Array :-

int main()
{
    int a[3][2];
    int i,j;

    for( i = 0 ; i < 3 ; i++ )
    {
        for( j = 0 ; j < 2 ; j++ )
        {
            printf("Enter [%d][%d] element of array : ",i,j);
            scanf("%d",&a[i][j]);
        }
    }
}

Output:-

Enter [0][0] element of array : 1
Enter [0][1] element of array : 2
Enter [1][0] element of array : 3
Enter [1][1] element of array : 4
Enter [2][0] element of array : 5
Enter [2][1] element of array : 6

Taking input and printing a 2-D Array :-

int main()
{
    int a[3][2];
    int i,j;

    for( i = 0 ; i < 3 ; i++ )
    {
        for( j = 0 ; j < 2 ; j++ )
        {
            printf("Enter [%d][%d] element of array : ",i,j);
            scanf("%d",&a[i][j]);
        }
    }

    for( i = 0 ; i < 3 ; i++ )
    {
        for( j = 0 ; j < 2 ; j++ )
        {
            printf("%4d",a[i][j]);
        }
        printf("n");
    }
}

Output :-

Enter [0][0] element of array : 1
Enter [0][1] element of array : 2
Enter [1][0] element of array : 3
Enter [1][1] element of array : 4
Enter [2][0] element of array : 5
Enter [2][1] element of array : 6
   1   2
   3   4
   5   6

Adding, Subtraction and multiplication of matrix :-

int main()
{
    int a[3][3];
    int b[3][3];
    int c[3][3];

    void input( int [][3] );

    void output( int [][3] );

    void sum( int [][3] , int [][3] , int [][3] );

    void subtraction( int [][3] , int [][3] ,int [][3] );

    void multiply( int [][3] , int [][3], int [][3] );

    printf("Taking input in first Array : n");
    input(a);

    printf("Value in a : n");
    output(a);

    printf("Taking input in first Array : n");
    input(b);

    printf("nValue in b : n");
    output(b);

    printf("Adding a and b :n");
    printf("nvalue of sum of a and b:n");
    sum(a,b,c);
    output(c);

    printf("Subtracting a and b :n");
    printf("nvalue of subtraction of a and b:n");
    subtraction(a,b,c);
    output(c);

    printf("multiplying a and b :n");
    printf("value of multiplication of a and b :n");
    multiply(a,b,c);
    output(c);
}

void input( int a[][3] )
{
    int i ,j;

    for( i = 0 ; i < 3 ; i++ )
    {
        for( j = 0 ; j < 3 ; j++ )
        {
            printf("Enter [%d][%d] element of array : ",i,j);
            scanf("%d",&a[i][j]);
        }
    }
}

void output( int a[][3] )
{
    int i,j;
    for( i = 0 ; i < 3 ; i++ )
    {
        for( j = 0 ; j < 3 ; j++ )
        {
            printf("%4d",a[i][j]);
        }
        printf("n");
    }
}

void sum( int x[][3] , int y[][3], int z[][3] )
{
    int i,j;

    for( i = 0 ; i < 3 ; i++ )
    {
        for( j = 0 ; j < 3 ; j++ )
        {
            z[i][j] =  x[i][j] + y[i][j];       
        }
    }
}

void subtraction( int x[][3] , int y[][3], int z[][3] )
{
    int i,j;

    for( i = 0 ; i < 3 ; i++ )
    {
        for( j = 0 ; j < 3 ; j++ )
        {
            z[i][j] =  x[i][j] - y[i][j];       
        }
    }
}

void multiply( int x[][3] , int y[][3], int z[][3] )
{
    int i,j,k;

    for( i = 0 ; i < 3 ; i++ )
    {
        for( j = 0 ; j < 3 ; j++ )
        {
            z[i][j] = 0 ;
            for( k = 0 ; k < 3 ; k++ )
                z[i][j] = z[i][j] + ( x[i][k] * y[k][j] );
        }
    }
}

Output:-

Taking input in first Array : 
Enter [0][0] element of array : 1
Enter [0][1] element of array : 2
Enter [0][2] element of array : 3
Enter [1][0] element of array : 4
Enter [1][1] element of array : 5
Enter [1][2] element of array : 6
Enter [2][0] element of array : 7
Enter [2][1] element of array : 8
Enter [2][2] element of array : 9
Value in a : 
   1   2   3
   4   5   6
   7   8   9
Taking input in first Array : 
Enter [0][0] element of array : 1
Enter [0][1] element of array : 2
Enter [0][2] element of array : 3
Enter [1][0] element of array : 4
Enter [1][1] element of array : 5
Enter [1][2] element of array : 6
Enter [2][0] element of array : 7
Enter [2][1] element of array : 8
Enter [2][2] element of array : 9

Value in b : 
   1   2   3
   4   5   6
   7   8   9
Adding a and b :

value of sum of a and b:
   2   4   6
   8  10  12
  14  16  18
Subtracting a and b :

value of subtraction of a and b:
   0   0   0
   0   0   0
   0   0   0
multiplying a and b :
value of multiplication of a and b :
  30  36  42
  66  81  96
 102 126 150

2-D String :

As we know , A 1-D string can hold only one string at a time. To store more then one string,
we can create 2-D string.

Initializing of 2-D string :

screenshot-from-2018-08-19-00-21-19.png

Input with 2-D String :

In this program we will take input in 2-D String.

int main()
{
    char a[5][10];
    int i;

    for( i = 0 ; i < 5 ; i++ )
    {
        printf("Enter a string : ");
        scanf("%s",a[i]);
    }
    return 0;
}

output:

Enter a string : vipin
Enter a string : nitin
Enter a string : bhaskar
Enter a string : yatender
Enter a string : harchand

Output with 2-D String :

In this program we will print a 2-D string after taking input.

int main()
{
    char a[5][10];
    int i;

    for( i = 0 ; i < 5 ; i++ )
    {
        printf("Enter a string : ");
        scanf("%s",a[i]);
    }

    for( i = 0 ; i < 5 ; i++ )
    {
        puts(a[i]);
    }
    return 0;
}
Enter a string : Vipin
Enter a string : Nitin     
Enter a string : Bhaskar
Enter a string : Yatender
Enter a string : Harchand
Vipin
Nitin
Bhaskar
Yatender
Harchand

Now we will code a program who print all name start from v or V,
from a 2-D string :

int main()
{
    char a[10][10];
    int i;

    for( i = 0 ; i < 10 ; i++ )
    {
        printf("Enter a string : ");
        scanf("%s",a[i]);
    }

    for( i = 0 ; i < 10 ; i++ )
    {
        if ( a[i][0] == 'v' || a[i][0] == 'V')
            puts(a[i]);
    }
    return 0;
}

Output:-

Enter a string : vipin
Enter a string : nitin
Enter a string : bhaskar
Enter a string : harchand
Enter a string : yatender
Enter a string : vijay 
Enter a string : ajay
Enter a string : ram
Enter a string : Vinod
Enter a string : prateek
vipin
vijay
Vinod

This code will find given String from a bunch of String :

// Use string.h library
int main()
{
    char a[10][10];
    char b[10];
    int i;

    for( i = 0 ; i < 10 ; i++ )
    {
        printf("Enter a string : ");
        scanf("%s",a[i]);
    }

    printf("Enter a string you want to search : "); 
    scanf("%s",b);

    for( i = 0 ; i < 10 ; i++ )
    {
        if ( strcmp( a[i] , b ) == 0)
            printf("String is at a[%d]",i);
    }
    return 0;
}

Output:-

Enter a string : Vipin
Enter a string : nitin
Enter a string : yatender
Enter a string : bhaskar
Enter a string : ajay
Enter a string : vijay
Enter a string : harchand
Enter a string : ned           
Enter a string : caption
Enter a string : rajat
Enter a string you want to search : vijay
String is at a[5]

We can have more multi dimensional array but we use them according to our needs.
In our next blog-post we will read structures 🙂

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